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While the EU & U.S. Talk About Competing With China to Build Infrastructure in the Global South, Japan’s Experience in Vietnam Should Give Them Pause

Ho Chi Minh City Urban Railway Line 1 under construction. The line will be opened in 2020 and is 83 percent financed by Japan Bank for International Cooperation. The Saigon Opera visible in the background. Photo by epixx

Over the past month, the United States and Europe have doubled down on their commitment to challenging China’s Belt and Road Initiative by launching new initiatives to build infrastructure in developing countries.

Secretary of State Antony Blinken this week touted the Blue Dot Network at the OECD in Paris, last week the White House sent a high-level delegation to go on a three-nation “listening tour” to promote its new B3W initiative, and in September the EU unveiled the “Global Gateway.”

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